By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent knowing of the results of torsion on concrete participants is vital to the secure, within your budget layout of strengthened and prestressed concrete contributors. This record starts with a quick and systematic precis of the 180-year background of torsion of structural concrete participants, new and up to date theories and their functions, and a ancient evaluate outlining the improvement of study on torsion of structural concrete participants. ancient theories and truss types contain classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the third-dimensional (3-D) house truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box concept (CFT) by means of Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) through Hsu and Mo.
This file emphasizes that it truly is necessary to the research of torsion in strengthened concrete that individuals may still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium situation (Mohr’s rigidity circle); 2) obey the compatibility situation (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) identify the constitutive relationships of fabrics reminiscent of the “softened” stress-strain courting of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain dating of metal bars. The habit of contributors subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This document offers with layout concerns, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and measurement results.
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Extra resources for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
They found that specimens designed assuming the members had zero torsional stiffness behaved as satisfactorily as specimens designed assuming uncracked stiffness values. They also showed that the ratio of torsional-to-flexural stiffness will drop at cracking, causing redistribution of the torsion and flexural moments. They concluded that for compatibility torsion, design should be for a twist and not a torque, and the main function of torsional reinforcement is to distribute the cracks caused by twist.
4c—Testing of spandrel beams under lateral sway (Pantazopoulou and Moehle 1990). the column (location of maximum torsion in the elastic analysis) would reduce the torsion affecting the spandrel beam. 2 Design benefits from torsion redistribution—Plastic hinges and moment redistribution permit full strength use of the strength of the flexural member’s cross section. With torsion, elastic analysis typically results in high torsional moments, which in turn require both stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement beyond minimum requirements.
This T-specimen is cut at the flexural inflection points, which can be simulated by hinges. When the T-specimen is loaded, a concentrated torsional moment will occur at the spandrel beam midspan. Whereas cracking reduces flexural stiffness by a factor of approximately 2, it reduces torsional stiffness by a factor of approximately 10. Therefore, a significant redistribution of internal actions begins to occur at cracking. When the spandrel beam develops torsional hinges at its ends, additional load will result in higher flexural moment in the floor beam.
ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
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