February 11, 2018

A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies - download pdf or read online

By Leonard Nelson, Fernando Leal, D. G. Carus

ISBN-10: 3319207822

ISBN-13: 9783319207827

Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this booklet provides the main unique account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated by way of many luminaries similar to Karl Popper. It used to be written in 1921 towards the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic developments of Nelson’s time. The booklet comprises an exposition of a style that may be a additional improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, by way of an software to the severe research of arguments by means of many well-known thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The ebook provides a basic concept of philosophical argumentation as obvious from the point of view of the common fallacies devoted through anyone arguing philosophically, no matter if expert philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even though the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is likely one of the so much recurrent items of mirrored image for philosophers, this publication represents the 1st test at a normal conception of philosophical fallacy. in line with Nelson, it's within the form of fake dilemmas that mistakes in reasoning continually emerge, and fake dilemmas are consistently the results of a similar mechanism--the unwitting substitute of 1 inspiration for another.

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What does this all mean, a thoughtful person will ask, considering perhaps that the cultural spirit will sooner or later have its need for metaphysics assuaged and could again grow tired of her? Anyone who already lives in that future period will be even further ahead of his time. And the game will be repeated over and over. It is thus not possible to understand how one idea could be preferred over another, other than by the fact that it is fashionable at the time it is written and spoken about.

The increase in the pleasure that one person achieves is at the cost of the pleasure of others in society. The question is: how are we to apply that ethical principle in such cases? According to the principle we would be commanded to increase our own pleasure at the cost of others in all cases of conflict. But that cannot be an ethical command, for it is considered unethical to pursue our own pleasure at the cost of other members of society. Bentham certainly flinches from rejecting this generally accepted ethical proposition, according to which it is unethical to pursue our own pleasure at the cost of others.

My first example will be the ethical theory that harks back to the English school of the so-called Utilitarians. The founder of this school of thought was Jeremy Bentham, who lived at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He became famous not only in the history of philosophy, but also in the history of the social sciences. 1 This is the principle of what is called a hedonistic ethic. The originator of this system was of the opinion that the principle that GOOD = PLEASURE is not only a universally valid proposition, but also a self-evident and immediately admissible one, a proposition which does not have to be proved, so much so that he directly proceeded to derive consequences from this principle.

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A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson, Fernando Leal, D. G. Carus

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